Relative clauses 3

Relative clause 3

 Relative Adverb  

  Preposition+Relative Pronoun 

(Preposition + whom or which)

 Where ≒ In / at / on … + which


The relative adverb "Where" is modify a noun phrase of place, location, or space.


・The restaurant where we had dinner was near our house.
・This is the place where we often play.

 In whichat which and on which are sometimes used as more precise soundingalternatives to "where" to introduce relative clauses after nouns referring to place: 

 In which 

"In which" is used for CITY, AREA, COUNTRY, ROOM...



・Tokyo is the stressful city in which I have ever lived.
・The forest in which you were is not allowed to enter.
・The country in which I pay taxes is Japan, in which I was born.

 At which  

"At which" is used for EXACT or SPECIFIC ADDRESS OR PLACE.



・The station at which I have to stop was already passed.
・I was late for the event at which I was invited to speak .

 On which 



・The floor on which I live has no elevator.
・The road on which I used to play was ruined.

 "Where" is also able to use to refer to relationships other than location, particularly after words such as case, condition, example, situation, system: 


・There is a case where (in which) new evidence was let (in).
・Hypoglycemia is a condition where the level of sugar in the blood drop suddenly.
・I think that is an example where it has created a problem.
・If there is a situation where there is smoke, then there is a situation where there is a fire.
・The organisation is a system where all these functions are interrelated.

 when ≒ In / at / on / by… + which 


  The relative adverb "when" is used to modify a noun phrase of time. Such noun phrases include nouns that denote periods of time such as, "day", "week", "hour", "minute", "month", "year", and similar terms.


・Jessie remembered the day when he forgot to set his alarm clock.
・Jessie remembered the day that he forgot to set his alarm clock.

・We will all feel nervous until next Tuesday, when results of the auditions will be posted.
・We will all feel nervous until next Tuesday, which results of the auditions will be posted.

 "In which", "At which" and "On which" is sometimes used as a more precise soundingalternative to "when" to introduce relative clauses after nouns referring to time:

 In which 



・There will be a ceremony in April in which I have to attend.
・We may be approaching the end of the era in which we rely on oil and nuclear energy.
・A tragic day in on March 11, 2011 in which a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of Japan.

 At which 


・He needed to get out of there until 10 am, at which (time) they came to there.
・This is the time at which the sun is the highest in the sky.
・ Leave them for 5 minutes, at which (time) they can be separated from each other.

 On which 



・The day on which I was born was Christmas day.
・he could scarcely remember any Sunday on which the church had been so crowded.
・This is the eve on which gifts are exchanged among friends, family and loved ones.

 By which 





The relative adverb "why" is used to modify a noun phrase with "the reason" or "a reason".

Sometimes the relative adverb "why" is left out of these clauses, and the writer substitutes "that" instead.


The reason why they got rid of it is that they don't need one.
The reason that they got rid of it is that they don't need one.
The reason Ø they got rid of it is that they don't need one.

  reason / cause for which  

"why" usually replaces "the/a reason for which"


・That is the reason for which we were made.
・That is the reason that (why) we were made.
・That is the reason we were made.
・That is (the reason) why we were made.

・Temperatures in parts of Antarctica have risen higher than the global average, the reason for which is unclear.
・Temperatures in parts of Antarctica have risen higher than the global average, the reason why is unclear.

・It is the main reason for which I have decided to buy the house.
・It is the main reason why I have decided to by the house.

 because of which (whom) 


・Those are the reasons why I can't go with you.
・Those are the reasons because of which I can't go with you.

・I regret reading that horror novel, because of which I hardly slept last night.
・I regret readin that horror novel, which is (the reason) why I hardly slept last night.

・He had a position of royalty because of whom he represented.
・Are those people hired because of whom they know?
・she becomes a political refugee because of whom she associates with.

  on account of which (whom) 


・Allowances are calculated only in respect of the time during which the employee worked in the conditions on account of which he is entitled to an allowance.

・ I opted for an cable modem on account of which I am no longer required to dial up to access the net.

・The Christian philosophy, which has drawn deeply from the Greek philosophy added on it the concept of “primeval sin” committed by Adam on account of which he was expelled from paradise.

・The immediate cause of this was a very severe cough, on account of which I examined her for the first time. It was a typical tussis nervosa.

・These are stars which have consumed about 10 per cent of their hydrogen on account of which they appear reddish.

・He was like a dictator in the family, and dominated his wife and children in the family,on account of which there was resentment in his family members.

・ So he came to the men of Succoth and said, Here are Zebah and Zalmunna, on account of whom you made sport of me, saying, Are the hands of Zebah and Zalmunna even now in your hand, that we are to give bread to your army who are overcome with weariness? (Judges 8:15. the Bible In Basic English)

 thanks to which (whom) 


・The Daily Mail City team explains the issues surrounding the technology thanks to which carbon dioxide can be removed from the burning process of fossil fuels.

・imm sound has created a revolutionary immersive 3D sound system, which offers the cinema industry an authentic third sound dimension, thanks to which, viewers are submerged into a completely immersive experience.

・Event organizer can as well benefit from payment gate on BusinessVibes thanks to which they can collect registration fees from visitors and exhibitors.

・People that once took care of her, thanks to whom she had recovered completely from the terrible accident.

・They are staying with poor families, thanks to whom they have so far been dissuaded from moving further afield.

 due to which (whom) 


・Members of the Svoboda All-Ukrainian Union think that the European Union does not see Ukraine as its member, as of today, and is facing various problems, due to whichEuropeans are revising some of their values.

・He said that Kalabagh Dam and Iran Pakistan gas pipeline projects were politiciseddue to which country was facing an energy crisis.

・The owners of hand driven carts have extended their business and occupied half of the road passing through this market due to which traffic jams have become daily routine.

・We would also like to thank our audiences due to whom this rare achievement has been made possible.

・The main gates opened to the public on Wednesday morning, but due to whom I was camping with, the girls and I arrived on Tuesday.



[relative adverb] the way in whichhoweverin any way in which


・She told us how she had lived out of a suitcase for a week.
・I'll do business how I like.
・Do you know how I can get to her?
・When are you going to teach me how to use that thing?

 the way in which 


・I liked the way in which she expressed herself.
・I liked the way how she expressed herself.
・I liked how she expressed herself.

・The Government looks set to report a big rise in the currently disappointing figures on sport participation by changing the way in which it calculates them.

・There are a huge variety of teas, however, generally classified by the size of the leaves and the way in which they're treated.

・The Guardian has a serious journalistic purpose in seeking access to the documents. It wants to be able to refer to them for the purpose of stimulating informed debate aboutthe way in which the justice system deals with suspected international corruption and the system for extradition of British subjects to the USA.



1. (interrogative, obsolete) By what, in which direction; how
2. By means of which; By which, Through which.
3. (nonstandard) Where.

We can begin relative and other clauses with "whereby" referring to method or means; used mainly in formal contexts. 


・We need to devise some sort of system whereby you can spread the cost over a period.
・They created a program whereby single parents could receive greater financial aid.
・The process whereby perceived qualities of an object are related to past experience.

Use of "whereby" as a formal equivalent of "where" is nonstandard and is avoided by careful speakers and writers, who use where or in which instead. The term typically fails readability and comprehension review so it is generally avoided in published works. The term is also avoided by speakers as it makes it difficult to understand the message that is trying to be communicated.


 by which (whom) 

In some cases, "whereby" can be replaced by "by which (whom)


・by which means
・by which way
・by which method
, etc…


・We need to devise some sort of system by which you can spread the cost over a period.
・They created a program by which single parents could receive greater financial aid.
・The process by which perceived qualities of an object are related to past experience.

By whom was this book written?
・He has failed by whom he didn't know.
・I was given good advice long ago, by whom, I don't remember.