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Irregular Verbs





Irregular verbs













 Irregular verbs 


 The English language has a large number of irregular verbs. In the great majority of these, the past participle and/or past tense is not formed according to the usual patterns of English regular verbs.
(does not take the -ed ending for the Past Simple and Past Participle forms.)


  Other parts of the verb ? such as the present 3rd person singular -s or -es, and present participle -ing ? may still be formed regularly. 


・They all have a base form.  

 Example  to run, to buy, to go, to be, to do…


・A gerund and present participle form (ing) where ing is added to the end of the verb.

 Example    running, going, doing, having, writing, buying…


・An -s or -es form where s is added to the end of the verb.

 Example    runs, beats, catches, chooses…



NOTE:

    Among the exceptions are the verb "to be" and certain *defective verbs which cannot be conjugated into certain tenses.


* A defective verb is a verb with an incomplete conjugation.
Defective verbs cannot be conjugated in certain tenses, aspects, or moods.




V1 =Present Simple, Future Simple

V2 =Past simple

V3 =Perfect tenses, Passive Forms, Passive Adjective 


 Category 1:  V2=V3  
 ・ irregular ending with no vowel change.  


 group 1: d ending changes to t, ent changes to end 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
bendbendingbentbent
buildbuildingbuiltbuilt
lendlendinglentlent
sendsendingsentsent
spendspendingspentspent




 group 2: the verbs have and make 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
have
has*(3rdP.S.)<>
havinghadhad
makemakingmademade




 group 3: regular (V2, V3) in US English, irregular in UK English 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
learnlearninglearned
learnt
learned
learnt
burnburningburned
burnt
burned
burnt
dwelldwellingdwelled
dwelt
dwelled
dwelt
smellsmellingsmelled
smelt
smelled
smelt
spellspellingspelled
spelt
spelled
spelt
spillspillingspilled
spilt
spilled
spilt
spoilspoilingspoiled
spoilt
spoiled
spoilt





 group 4: ay ending changes to aid 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
laylayinglaidlaid
paypayingpaidpaid
saysayingsaid
(/sed/)
said
(/sed/)





 Category 2:  V2=V3  

 Vowel change, irregular ending 



 group 5: vowel change , d or t ending 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
creepcreepingcreptcrept
feedfeedingfedfed
feelfeelingfeltfelt
keepkeepingkeptkept
kneelkneelingknelt/kneeledknelt/kneeled
meetmeetingmetmet
sleepsleepingsleptslept
sweepsweepingsweptswept
weepweepingweptwept
leaveleavingleftleft





 group 6: different pronunciation of the same vowel d or t ending 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
dealdealingdealtdealt
dreamdreamingdreamed
dreamt
dreamed
dreamt
leanleaningleaned
leant
leaned
leant
leapleapingleaptleapt
meanmeaningmeantmeant
readreadingread
(/red/)
read
(/red/)
hearhearingheardheard





 group 7: ell turns to old 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
sellsellingsoldsold
telltellingtoldtold





 group 8: vowel change with ought (or aught) ending d or t ending 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
bringbringingbroughtbrought
buybuyingboughtbought
fightfightingfoughtfought
seekseekingsoughtsought
thinkthinkingthoughtthought
catchcatchingcaughtcaught
teachteachingtaughttaught





 Category 3:  V1=V2=V3  

  Verbs with the same form 



 group 9: Verbs that do not change d or t ending 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
betbettingbet
betted
bet
betted
bid
(to offer)
biddingbidbid
broadcastbroadcastingbroadcast
broadcasted
broadcast
broadcasted
burstburstingburstburst
costcostingcostcost
cutcuttingcutcut
fitfittingfit
(was the right size)
fit
(was the right size)
fitfittingfitted
(tailored, changed size)
fitted
(tailored, changed size)
hithittinghithit
hurthurtinghurthurt
letlettingletlet
putputtingputput
setsettingsetset
shutshuttingshutshut
spreadspreadingspreadspread
quitquittingquitquit





 Category 4:   

 Vowel change, V3 ending with (e)n 



 group 10: V2 and V3 with long /o / sound 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
breakbreakingbrokebroken
choosechoosingchosechosen
freezefreezingfrozefrozen
speakspeakingspokespoken
stealstealingstolestolen
awakeawakingawoke
awaked
awoken
awaked
wakewakingwoke
waked
woken
waked
weaveweavingwovewoven





 group 11: V2 long o sound, V3 shirt /i/ sound 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
arisearisingarosearisen
riserisingroserisen
rideridingroderidden
drivedrivingdrovedriven
writewritingwrotewritten





 group 12: The following verbs: 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
bitebitingbitbitten
hidehidinghidhidden
eateatingateeaten
givegivinggavegiven
forgiveforgivingforgaveforgiven
bid
( to command, farewell)
biddingbadebidden
forgetforgettingforgotforgotten
getgettinggotgotten
(got - British)
shakeshakingshookshaken
taketakingtooktaken
seeseeingsawseen
beatbeatingbeatbeaten
fallfallingfellfallen
lie
(down to rest)
lyinglaylatin
lie
(tell a lie)
lyingliedlied
laylayinglaidlaid





 group 13: the ear-ore-orn pattern 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
bearbearingboreborn
swearswearingsworesworn
teartearingtoretorn
wearwearingworeworn





 group 14: V1 with ow, V2 with ew, V3 with own 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
blowblowingblewblown
growgrowinggrewgrown
knowknowingknewknown
throwthrowingthrewthrown
flyflyingflewflown
drawdrawingdrewdrawn





 Category 5:   

 regular V2, regular or irregular V3 



 group 15 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
showshowingshowedshowed
shown
mowmowingmowedmowed
mown
swellswellingswilledswelled
swollen
sewsewingsewedsewed
sewn
shine
(the shoes)
shiningshinedshined
shine
(brightly)
shiningshownshown





 Category 6:  V2=V3  

 vowel change, no ending, 



 group 16: vowel change pattern, no ending 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
digdiggingdugdug
stickstickingstuckstuck
spinspinningspunspun
stingstingingstungstung
strikestrikingstruckstruck
swingswingingswungswung
hang
(a man)
hanginghangedhanged
hang
(a picture)
hanginghunghung
slideslidingslidslid
lightlightinglighted
lit
lighted
lit
shootshootingshotshot





 group 17: vowel change pattern i - ou - ou 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
bindbindingboundbound
findfindingfoundfound
grindgrindinggroundground
windwindingwoundwound





 vowel change ee - e - e 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
bleedbleedingbledbled
feedfeedingfedfed
fleefleeingfledfled
leadleadingledled
speedspeedingspeeded
sped
speeded
sped





 Category 7:   

 other irregular verbs 



 group 19: vowel change pattern i - a - u 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
beginbeginningbeganbegun
drinkdrinkingdrankdrunk
ringringingrangrung
shrinkshrinkingshrankshrunk
sinksinkingsanksunk
spinspinningspan
spun
spun
springspringingsprangsprung
swimswimmingswamswum





 group 20: vowel change, V1=V3 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
comecomingcamecome
becomebecomingbecamebecome
runrunningranrun





 group 21: miscellaneous 
InfinitivePresent
Participle
Simple
Past
Participle
be(am, is, are)beingwas
was
were
been
gogoingwentgone
dive(jumped head first)divingdovedived
dive
(scuba-diving)
divingdiveddived
dodoingdiddone
can-could-
may-might-
holdholdingheldheld
standstandingstoodstood
understandunderstandingunderstoodunderstood
sitsittingsatsat
babysitbabysittingbabysatbabysat
winwinningwonwon
loselosinglostlost