International Phonetic Alphabet  -Consonants & Stress-

   International Phonetic Alphabet   

               -Consonants & Stress-


A speech sound that is made by partly or completely stopping the flow of air breathed out from the mouth, not a, e, i, o, or u.


   buy, cab

   die, cad

ð    thy, breathe, father

    giant, badgejam

f    phi, cafffan

ɡ(ˈɡ)    guy, bag

h    high, ahead

j    yes, yacht

k    chi, sky, crack

l    lie, sly, gal

m    my, smile, cam

n    nigh, snide, can

ŋ    sang, sink, singer

ŋɡ    finger, anger

θ    thigh, math

p    pie, spy, cap

r(ɹ, ɻ )    rye, try, very

s    sigh, mass

ʃ    shy, cash, emotion

t    tie, sty, cat, atom

    China, catch

v    vie, have

w    wye, swine

hw    why 

( /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in dialects with the wine-whine merger, such as Received Pronunciation and most varieties of General American.)

z    xi, zoo, has

ʒ    pleasure, vision, beige( /ʒ/ or /dʒ/)

 Marginal consonants  

x    ugh, lochChanukah

(In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in loch and by /h/ in Chanukah.)

ʔ    uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/


 primary (tonic) stress(accent)  

The principal or strongest stress of a word.

ˈa     intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/

 Secondary stress(accent) 

The degree of stress weaker than a primary accent placed on a syllable in the pronunciation of a word.

ˌa    intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/

 tertiary stress 

Full unstressed vowels.

a    intonation /ˌɪnˈneɪʃən/

 Quaternary stress 

Reduced vowels (schwas)

a    intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/