Adverbs 1

Adverbs 1


Adverbs tell us in what way someone does something.

Adverbs can modify:

(He ran slowly. - How did he run?)

adjectives (including numbers)
(He drove a very fast car. - How fast was his car?)

( You seem very happy when you help other people.)
(Unfortunately, we couldn't see the man.)

other adverbs
(She moved quite slowly down the aisle. ― How slowly did she move?) 

 Adverbs typically answer questions such as:

・in what way?
・to what extent?

 Forms of Adverbs 

1. In most cases, an adverb is formed by adding '-ly' to an adjective:


quick ▶ quickly

slow  ▶ slowly

great ▶ greatly

Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs.

Adjectives ending in -ly:  friendly, silly, lonely, ugly
Nouns, ending in -ly:    ally, bully, Italy, melancholy
Verbs, ending in -ly:    apply, rely, supply

1-1.If the adjective ends in '-y', replace the 'y' with 'i' and add '-ly':


easy ▶ easily

angry ▶ angrily

happy ▶ happily

lucky ▶ luckily

1-2.If the adjective ends in -'able', '-ible', or '-le', replace the '-e' with '-y':


probable ▶ probably
horrible ▶ horribly
gentle ▶ gently

1-3.If the adjective ends in '-ic', add '-ally': 


basic ▶ basically
economic ▶ economically
tragic ▶ tragically 

Note: Exception: public ▶ publicly

2. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective:


early ▶ early
fast ▶ fast
hard ▶ hard
high ▶ high
late ▶ late
near ▶ near
straight ▶ straight
wrong ▶ wrong

3. Well and good

'Well' is the adverb that corresponds to the adjective 'good'.


good ▶ well

 Types of adverbs 

1. Adverbs of manner 

 Adverbs of manner describe how something happens. Where there are two or more verbs in a sentence, adverb placement affects the meaning.
- answer the question How?


Tips:She decided to write her paper. (no adverbs)
She quickly decided to write her paper. (her decision was quick)
She decided to write her paper quickly. (her writing was quick)

2. Adverbs of degree

Adverbs of degree tell us the strength or intensity of something that happens. Many adverbs are gradable, that is, we can intensify them.
- Answer the question How much?,or How little?


3. Adverbs of place 

Adverbs of place indicate where something happens.
Most adverbs of place are also used as prepositions. 
- answer the question Where?


4. Adverbs of time

Adverbs of time describe when something happens.

- answer the question When?


5.Adverbs of purpose

describe why something happens

・so that
・in order to

6.Adverbs of Probability

Adverbs of probability are used to express how likely it is for something to happen: 


7.Adverbs of duration

Adverbs of duration indicate how long something happened. 


8.Adverbs of emphasis

The following connectors introduce clauses and phrases expressing emphasis.

・in fact
・even if
・even though

9. Adverbs of frequency

Adverbs of frequency describe how often something happens. 

・nearly always
・almost always
・hardly ever
・scarcely ever
・almost neve
・now and then
・once in a while

10.Interrogative adverbs 

Interrogative adverbs are used at the beginning of questions. 

・why ・when ・where ・how

11.Conjunctive adverb

 conjunctive adverbs are adverbs that connects two clauses. Conjunctive adverbs showcause and effectsequencecontrastcomparison, or other relationships.

・in fact

12.Focusing Adverbs (Focusing Adjunct)

An adverb that focuses on a particular part of the sentence.
A few focusing adverbs are prepositional phrases.