Adverbial Clauses 2
When you want to indicate the result (consequense) of an action or situation, you can use a result clause.
Result clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as so, so... that, or such … that.
subordinating conjunction of result
Subject + verb + so + adjective/adverb + that + subject + verb + complement
・She is so hungry that she has lunch early.
・That she has lunch early, she is so hungry.
・He is so weak that he cannot walk.
・It was so hot that we didn’t go out.
・He spoke in such a low voice that we couldn’t hear anything.
Subject + verb + such + noun(s) + that + subject + verb + complement
・She acts such a rude manner that no man loves her.
・That no man loves her, she acts such a rude manner.
・There was such a lot of material to cover that Ivan found it difficult to keep up with his studies.
These clauses are used to make two statements, one of which contrasts with the other or makes it seem surprising.
subordinating conjunction of concession
They can be placed at the beginning, internally or at the end of the sentence.
When placed at the beginning or internally, they serve to concede a certain part of an argument before proceeding to question the validity of the point in a given discussion.
Even though, though, although
Notice how 'though, even though' or 'although' show a situation which is contrary to the main clause to express opposition.
Even though, though and although are all synonyms.
・Even though it was expensive, he bought the car.
・Though he loves doughnuts, he has given them up for his diet.
・Although he course was difficult, he passed with the highest marks.
When the adverb clause finishes the sentence there is no need for a comma.
・Even though the it was expensive, he bought the car.
・He bought the car even though it was expensive.
'Whereas' and 'while' show clauses in direct opposition to each other.
Notice that you should always use a comma with 'whereas' and 'while'.
・Whereas you have lots of time to do your homework, I have very little time indeed.
・Mary is rich, while I am poor.
Place clauses define the location of the object of the main clause. Place conjunctions include where and in which.
They are generally placed following a main clause in order to define the location of the object of the main clause.
subordinating conjunction of place
・He said he was happy where he was.
・I will never forget Seattle where I spent so many wonderful summers.
・Wherever you live, I will come to that place to live.
・He led the caravan, wherever he wanted to go.
・You can paste it wherever you like to be.
・Let him be arrested wherever he may be found.
・Let us go to where they asked us to wait
clauses of manner are used to talk about someone's behaviour or the way something is done.
subordinating conjunction of manner
・I was never allowed to do things the way I wanted to do them.
・The boy speaks as if he is sick.
・As if he is sick, the boy speaks.
・I'll do the exercises as I've been taught.
・She cooks a turkey exactly as my mother did.
・He treats me as if I were a stranger.
・He looks as if he’s sick.
・He ran as though his life depended on it.
Exclamations are used to express anger, fear, shock, surprise etc.
They always take an exclamation mark (!!!!!!).
・What horrible news!
・How fast she types!
・You lucky man!
・What beatiful flowers!