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Adjectives 1







Adjectives 1






 Adjectives  


An adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun, giving more information about the noun or pronoun's referent. 

They can be modified by adverbs

 Example 

very expensive car



linguists today distinguish adjectives from words such as determiners that also used to be considered adjectives.

 Example 

・He wore a red shirt.
・We need some square tables.
・Each hand has five fingers.
・You are naughty.
・She is a beautiful girl.
・He is an honest boy.
・This is a wooden chair.
・She wore a gold necklace.
・It was an earthen pot.
・Sugar is sweet.



 Types of adjectives  


・Numeric (Determiner):
 Example 

three, eleven, one hundred, two thousand and one million …


・Quantitative (Determiner):
 Example 

more, all, some, half, more than enough


・Opinion
 Example 

good, pretty, right, wrong, funny, light, happy, sad


・Time
 Example 

late, early, bed, nap, dinner, lunch, day, morning


・Purpose

These adjectives often end with "-ing".

 Example 

sleeping bag
frying pan
work clothes


・Qualitative:
 Example 

・colour(red, black)
・shape(round, triangular,)
・size(small, huge, thin)
・smell (stinky, burning)
・age (old, young)
・material(cotton, wood, plastic, )
・distance(short, long, far, high)



・Origin:
 Example 

American, English, Asian, Middle Eastern, African, 


・Possessive:
 Example 

my, his, their, your


・Interrogative:
 Example 

which, whose, what


・Demonstrative:
 Example 

this, that, those, these



 Adjectives order  


Adjective Before Noun

 When several adjectives come before a noun, they usually have to be put in a particular order. The rules for adjective order are very complicated, and different grammars disagree about the details. Here are some of the most important rules:


1 Determiners or pronouns used as adjectives

 Example   a, an ,the, my, his, some, many, three
⇩⇩ 
2 Opinion

 Example   interesting, cute, lovely
  ⇩⇩ 
3 Size

 Example   small, big, huge, thin 
⇩⇩ 
4 Shape

 Example   round, short , long, spuare

⇩⇩ 
5 Age

 Example   old, young, antique
⇩⇩ 
6 Color

 Example   red, black, blue, green
⇩⇩ 
7 Origin

 Example   Italian, Japanese, American, English
⇩⇩ 
8 Material

 Example   woodie, plastic, metalic, woolen 
⇩⇩ 
9 purpose

 Example   sleeping, work, swimming, frying
⇩⇩
10 Nouns 



 Example 

・He had a nice, small, new, square, red, cotton, chinese, sleeping bag.(it's funny)



 Adjective after verbs 

Adjectives can be placed after be (is, am, are, was, were) and other copular verbs(stative verb) like lookseemappearfeel etc. In this case, the adjective describes the subject of the sentence. 


 Example 

・She is beautiful.
・Our house is small.
・This car is new, isn't it?
・She looked tired.
・I felt sorry for her.
・The fish tasted awful.
・I was surprised to hear the news.
・She seemed upset.



Adjectives used only in predicate position 


1. Some adjectives beginning with the letter 'a-' are used mainly in predicative position. 

 Example 

ablaze
afloat
afraid
aghast
alert
alike
alive
alone
aloof
ashamed
asleep
averse
awake
aware


If you put adjectives before nouns as same meaning, we must use other words.

 Example 

・Joey fell asleep.
・Jesse saw sleeping Joey. (Not saw asleep Joey.)

・Danny is afraid.
・Danny is a frightened man. (Not an afraid man.)



The adjectives ill and well are most common in predicative position.

we can not use them before noun.
If you put adjective before a noun as same meaning , we must use other words.


 Example 

・Steph is ill.
・She is an unhealthy child. (Not an ill child.)
・Who looks after the sick girl? (Not ill people.)

・DJ speaks English well.
・DJ can speak good English. (Not well English.)